The destiny of the scientific idea of the Nordic race became strongly intertwined with its success as a political idea. The Germanics were seen as the origin and the core of the German nation. This nation had to be purged of all contamination from alien races, and it had a right and a duty to expand, settle new territories and subdue or displace other races.
This ideology was combined with an intense hatred of the Jews, the alleged eternal enemy of the Germanics. Leading Nazis wanted to establish a Great Germania, which was to include all peoples of Germanic origin. This Germanic empire was meant to expand at the expense of inferior peoples, primarily the Jews and Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe. During World War II, these ideas were applied with brutal consistency.
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The extermination of the Jews was construed as a war against an internal enemy and an effort to preserve the racial purity of the nation. Scandinavian peoples were assigned a specific place in the Great Germanic Empire along with other Germanic peoples, such as the Dutch, the Flemish and the Germans themselves. It was, however, a tiny party that never had more than a thousand members and never had any political impact on the national scene. Its main goal was to overcome class tensions and unite the nation around a set of values and symbols, to establish a corporatist system of governance and to combat Bolshevism.
The idea of a superior Nordic race played an important role in the ideology of the NS.
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The party was not even represented in the Norwegian Parliament. However, on 1 February , less than a year after the German invasion of Norway, Vidkun Quisling established a puppet government that ruled the country until the end of the German occupation on 9 May During these years, when NS membership peaked at 43,, the party was more unambiguously inspired by Nazi-German role models and tried to reorganise the country according to National-Socialist principles.
This effort included participation in the deportation of Norwegian Jews to death camps on the continent. He mentioned Adolf Egeberg Jr. This organisation had been founded the year before and was incorporated into the establishment of the NS in Lie was the editor of the newspaper Ekstrabladet , which for a couple of years in the early s existed as the Norwegian mouthpiece for Germaninspired National Socialism.
However, I have not found any evidence to show that Bryn actively supported the National Socialist movement. Bryn died in , the same year that Hitler seized power in Germany and the NS was established in Norway. After , however, only Die Somatologie der Norweger among his works was published by the Oslo Academy. The three substantial works that he published between and his death in were issued by the less prestigious Royal Society of Science in Trondheim, where Bryn himself was highly influential by virtue of his position as president of the Society.
Prior to , Bryn had not published anything in Germany. In he published two titles there; in and , he published eight.
In spite of this, the Der nordische Mensch received positive reviews. Von Eickstedt informed Bryn that he had produced slides based on Der nordische Mensch and was using them in lectures. The craniological difference between the Nordic and the Cro-Magnon races, however, was so great that some archaeologists and prehistoric anthropologists held that the two races could not be related.
They had the same cephalic index, but differing facial indices. This biological argument was also underpinned by archaeological studies connecting the two races to two different prehistoric cultures. After , Saller was among the very few anthropologists who distanced themselves from the racial policy of the new German regime. He used skull measurements and archaeological theories to justify this claim.
Nevertheless, there was one crucial difference. Bryn did not argue for the existence of two races, but for two branches of the same race. According to Bryn, the Nordic race had its roots in Asia, and the two branches had arisen because the Nordics had migrated to Europe in two separate groups. The two groups were slightly different in their genetic composition, and through genetic drift they had developed in distinct directions. This meant that Bryn agreed with the criticism of a Nordic ideal type; the established notion of a Nordic race was not scientifically well-founded.
Bryn appears extreme, but it can be claimed that he only drew logical conclusions from ideas that had had scientific legitimacy within the Norwegian academic community for several decades. After his death, there was widespread public criticism of the ideas he represented. Because of political developments in Germany, such notions had become strongly associated with the Nazi movement. In contrast to Germany, this movement had limited political success in Norway. While 37 per cent of German voters supported Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in the election of , their Norwegian counterpart NNSAP remained completely marginal, and even Quisling and the NS never got more than 2 per cent of the vote in any election.
The election was a landslide victory for the Labour Party, which had recently disavowed its revolutionary past and embraced more pragmatic policies. It led to a less polarised political landscape and ushered in a long period of Labour Party dominance. From to , Norway had an uninterrupted series of Labour majority governments. This political development did not provide a fertile climate in Norway for racial ideas now strongly associated with Nazi Germany. In , he had published a series of articles on race in The Norwegian Journal of Pedagogy Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift , but when he reworked those articles into a book manuscript in , it was no longer possible to get them published because — according to the author — they were not politically correct in the new environment.
Saxlund claimed that Norway was backward in racial science, and that Marxists and liberals dominated the Norwegian University. No longer a master race, it became a purely descriptive category. It was a study of the more than 2, medieval skulls deposited in the Department of Anatomy. The study showed that in the Middle Ages, the eastern Norwegian population was already more long skulled than the western Norwegian population.
However, Schreiner also pointed out that there were huge local differences among the eastern Norwegian long skulls. Most local types belonged to the Nordic longskulls, but there were also some that could be characterised as Cro-Magnon skulls. Between these, moreover, there were a number of transitional types. Schreiner concluded that a comprehensive discussion of the causes behind his findings could not be undertaken before he had also analysed the small amount of Norwegian prehistoric bones.
This task would be addressed in Volume II, which was in progress. The German occupation of Norway had major consequences for Schreiner and his workplace, the University of Oslo. At the outbreak of war, only three professors were members of the NS or had publicly voiced support for the party. Both the Norwegian NS regime and the German occupation authorities, however, wanted to make the University a tool for their political agenda.
This policy aroused opposition from the vast majority of professors and students, and turned the university into an ideological war zone. A large number of lecturers were arrested, and the University was finally closed in ; students were deported to prison camps in Germany, where an unsuccessful attempt was made to raise their racial consciousness and mould them into SS men. This institute was given the task of conducting research, providing the government with advice on population and teaching racial biology. It was part of the planned curricula for medicine, law and theology and other disciplines.
If Quelprud had fulfilled his mission, the idea of a Nordic master race would likely have made a strong comeback in Norwegian academia, but after a year as director he resigned his position, citing a less than hospitable social environment. The Institute of Genetics was also the workplace of the outspoken anti-Nazi Otto Lous Mohr; just across the yard was the Department of Anatomy, led by Kristian Emil Schreiner, who, along with Mohr, was among the professors imprisoned for their resistance to the Nazification of the University.
The Hare's Race (English and German Edition)
While Volume 1 had been written in German, the second volume was in English. The last Lebensborn baby was born there in It was kept as a maternity clinic for years afterwards - partly because the Nazi era equipment had been state of the art. When the home was cleared out in , books were found listing the births which had taken place there. Standing on its front lawn, a member of the Lebensspuren board stresses how important it is to document what happened, but always with a nod to the larger tragedy of Hitler's regime. The museum must remind future generations, "but certainly not stand as any sort of memorial", he says.
They are victims but at the same time, the children of criminals". This unwieldy historical baggage impels Gisela to take her story to pupils in schools and colleges. And for her - as with others gathered in the room - telling the truth is all-important. As she gives an impassioned speech to the crowded room, it is clear how her ruptured history has dominated her life.
And her chosen career comes as little surprise - family therapy.
Lebensborn , which means "source of life", was a programme created by Heinrich Himmler , Adolf Hitler's right-hand man. It was designed to boost the German population by encouraging citizens, especially SS members , to have more children.
SS officers came under pressure to have four children, inside or outside marriage. Ten maternity homes were set up across Germany where 8, to 12, Lebensborn Kinder were born. Some stayed with their mothers, but many were adopted by families of SS officers. As the Third Reich expanded, Lebensborn homes were set up across Europe. In Norway some 10, babies were born, most fathered by SS officers to Norwegian mothers. Bergman, J. Hitler, A.
Weikart, R. See review by Sarfati, J. Hall, A. Helpful Resources. Evolution and the Holocaust. Paula S. US May 3rd, Listening to Glen Beck's radio program yesterday morning, I was astounded to hear him talk about a woman on the Dr. Phil TV show who wants to be allowed to kill her disabled children, even as I was reading this article on your site. Her two disabled children now adults in their 20's are in a nursing home, and according to her descripion they are like "newborn babies" She was supported by the attorney for the late Dr.
The whole thing reeks of post-modernist mentality and moral relativism. In commenting on this program, Glen Beck made the connection between this mentality and the Nazi practice of killing the infirm and handicapped before moving on to the Jews. If this is a barometer of national sentiment we are in serious trouble.
I used to wonder how it was possible for Hitler to get the following of an entire nation behind his evil and hateful schemes but the very same thing is happening all over again right under our noses. John T. CA May 2nd, One key thing should be added. Germany was the epicentre of liberal scholarship, and it was the work of men such as Bengel, Semler, Griesbach, F. Baur, D. Strauss, K.
Editions of Seizing The Enigma: The Race To Break The German U-boat Codes, by David Kahn
Graff, and Julius Wellhausen that destroyed the credibility of the Bible in the minds of the public and paved the way for Nazism. The extent to which the claims of liberal scholarship continues to influence even evangelical scholarship ought to be of concern to CMI. Colin M. AU May 2nd,