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One for the back pocket. Nov 26, David rated it really liked it. Just reread this during a holiday book crisis i. Chapters by various expert contributors on peripherals of running training -- flexibility work, strength training, cross-training, timing your peak correctly, etc. Lots of good stuff, but I particularly valued the chapter on cross-traini Just reread this during a holiday book crisis i.

Lots of good stuff, but I particularly valued the chapter on cross-training by Scott Douglas. As in his full-length books, he does a great job of taking into consideration real-world constraints while still giving it to you straight. For instance, he's convinced me that I don't spend nearly enough time cross-training when injured. I'm so pleased with myself for doing it at all even 30 minutes of deep water running I consider a triumph of willfulness and persistence that I don't really hold myself to a high standard, and consequently my fitness deteriorates badly when injured for any length of time.

I wouldn't get this as your first book on training, but if you have the basics in place this is an excellent supplement. Jul 15, Morten Jonassen rated it really liked it. Overall, this is a quite nice book with 12 diverse and easily—read articles from different experts within the running field. On the negative side, parts of the various theory has become outdated and the book contains a few unsupported claims and lacks proper references. Jun 24, David rated it did not like it Shelves: dnf. Sad but didnt finish it, preferred other books in this genre.

There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Kevin Beck. Kevin Beck. Books by Kevin Beck. Trivia About Run Strong. No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. Cutting back on your consumption of refined carbohydrates can help you lose extra fat and gain six-pack abs.

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As a further suggestion, coaches could use head-to-head competition and verbal encouragement during training to facilitate maximum effort when required e. Music could be valuable during training, as well as events and competitions that permit its use. Although excluded from this review, there is substantial evidence that music elicits positive affect and feeling states during exercise at all intensities, reduces perception of effort during exercise below the lactate threshold and facilitates endurance performance [ 27 , 28 ].

Self-selecting music for its motivational qualities is encouraged [ 27 , 28 ]. The benefits of music, however, should be weighed against potential risks, such as not hearing safety-related cues e. Placebos and various forms of deceptive feedback can also be used to improve endurance performance; the practical application of these manipulations during training and competitions, however, raises significant ethical issues [ 26 , ].

Theoretically driven studies could systematically examine the mechanisms through which psychological interventions affect endurance performance, and they could therefore encourage development and refinement of performance enhancement interventions that have consistent and strong effects in endurance events. Research examining the effects of interventions in real-life competition could particularly add to the endurance literature. Researchers are also encouraged to compare different performance enhancement interventions, using randomized, controlled experimental designs.

Inclusion of placebo control conditions could help readers to judge the effects of interventions beyond expectation effects. Furthermore, these studies should include more than one posttest, report whether participants continue to use the intervention following their commitment to the study, report the number of participants who drop out from the study and their reasons for doing so, and provide expertise-related information on the person delivering the intervention.

As an alternative to measuring performance in real-life endurance competition, researchers could use head-to-head competition and verbal encouragement to ensure that participants offer maximum effort during an endurance task. This could help researchers to test the effects of interventions when participants are in motivated performance situations. To reduce the risk of confounding variables, care should be taken to apply head-to-head competition and verbal encouragement consistently across experiment trials.

For example, a research assistant who is blinded to the study aims or hypotheses could provide verbal encouragement using a consistent verbal encouragement protocol [ ], a blinded and independent researcher could analyse audio recordings of the delivered verbal encouragement and attempt to predict the experimental conditions, and head-to-head competition procedures could be standardized [ 67 ].

Few practical psychological interventions appeared to be designed specifically for the demands of endurance sports. More often, interventions were informed by research on mental preparation or interventions across a range of sports. This is surprising because endurance activities have physical, technical, logistical and psychological demands that should be taken into account when an intervention is being designed [ ].

Qualitative research has drawn some attention to the demands faced by endurance athletes and the cognitive strategies used by high-level endurance athletes [ — ]. Future research could shed greater light on the demands facing endurance athletes or test interventions that are designed to help athletes to cope with these demands. It is surprising that only four studies [ 75 — 77 , 81 ] examined interventions that undermine endurance performance.

The Best Way to Increase Your Running Stamina - wikiHow

Ethically approved future research could address the effects of other psychological states e. Little is known about whether participant characteristics influence the effects of psychological manipulations. The results shed little light on whether sex [ 46 , 60 , 79 , 80 ] or athletic ability [ 69 , 82 ] are moderating variables. Further research on moderating variables e.

Lack of blinding procedures was often a source of bias. Where resources are available, researchers are encouraged to collect data using research assistants who are blinded to treatment allocation, particularly when verbal encouragement is given during endurance performance.

It is acknowledged that researchers may be unable to disguise the research question when they are testing the effects of an intervention. Researchers could therefore inform participants that they do not know what impact if any the intervention will have on their endurance performance [ 55 ], or they could include an alternative control treatment [ 84 ]. Finally, researchers could consider a more diverse range of sports and distances.

None of the located studies examined rowing or triathlon performance in field settings, and none of the research was focused on endurance-distance race walking, speed skating or cross-country skiing. There is also a lack of studies examining the effects of interventions in long-distance events e. This literature review synthesized studies on the psychological determinants of endurance performance. A heterogeneous selection of studies was included, and there are insufficient studies to provide sport- or distance-specific guidance.

The technical, physical, logistical and mental demands [ ] of the included sports and distances will undoubtedly vary, and the comparability of these performance measures could therefore be questioned. Individual differences also need to be taken into account; interventions seemed influential for only a proportion of group-design participants. While the findings of this systematic review should inform evidence-based practice, practitioners interested in performance enhancement should also consider the demands of the specific sport and competitive distance, as well as the needs of the individual athlete [ ].

This systematic review synthesized the peer-reviewed studies that have been published to date, because these studies comprise the evidence base that is available to practitioners, theorists and researchers. Publication bias might partially account for the abundance of interventions that significantly affected endurance performance, because studies might not have been put forward or accepted for publication if the examined intervention did not have an effect [ 34 ].

Indeed, a recent study reported statistical evidence that publication bias is a pervasive problem across all areas of psychological research [ ]. This evaluation tool is not specific to the sport context, and it was therefore adapted.

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The tool evaluates information that is reported in the manuscript, and reporting practices could vary between healthcare and sport science. Nevertheless, researchers are encouraged to report randomization and blinding procedures when performed and the numbers of withdrawals and dropouts and the reasons for them , because this information is important for judging bias.

An evaluation tool that is specific to sport science research and is sensitive to its research practices would be valuable. Similarly, an evaluation tool that recognizes the strengths of single-subject research in sport psychology see Barker et al. The tool was useful, however, for identifying common sources of bias across all of the studies, such as blinding and withdrawals and dropouts, and comparing the quality of the included studies.

This systematic literature review aimed to identify psychological determinants of endurance performance. Additional objectives were to evaluate the research practices of included studies, to suggest theoretical and applied implications, and to guide future research. Of the practical psychological interventions identified, consistent support was found for using imagery, self-talk and goal setting to improve endurance performance, but it is unclear whether learning multiple psychological skills is more beneficial than learning one psychological skill.

Consistent with the psychobiological model of endurance performance, interventions that influenced perception of effort consistently affected endurance performance. The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data. No sources of funding were used in the preparation of this review.


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The authors have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of the review. Dr Kristina Charlotte Dietz School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Kent checked all reported effect sizes and independently evaluated the quality of a random selection of studies. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Sports Medicine Auckland, N. Sports Med. Published online Mar Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and the source are credited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Supplementary material 2 DOCX Supplementary material 3 DOCX Supplementary material 4 DOCX Abstract Background No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. Objective A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affect endurance performance.

Methods Electronic databases, forward-citation searches and manual searches of reference lists were used to locate relevant studies. Results Consistent support was found for using imagery, self-talk and goal setting to improve endurance performance, but it is unclear whether learning multiple psychological skills is more beneficial than learning one psychological skill.

Conclusions Psychological skills training could benefit an endurance athlete. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi Key Points Practical psychological interventions consistently improve endurance performance in published studies. Psychological skills training could therefore benefit an endurance athlete. There is more to learn, however, about how i. Verbal encouragement and head-to-head competition can have a beneficial effect on endurance performance and should be controlled in experiments.

Mental fatigue has a negative effect on endurance performance. Open in a separate window. Introduction A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affect endurance performance.


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Eligibility Criteria Studies were included if they met the following criteria: 1 written in English language; 2 published in a peer-reviewed journal; 3 used an experimental or quasi-experimental research design; 4 chose athletes or physically active, healthy adults as participants; 5 used a psychological manipulation; 6 met our definition of endurance performance; and 7 measured performance time, distance, work completed, power output, peak power, peak velocity or competitive outcome as the dependent variable.

Effect Sizes Effect sizes were calculated when mean and standard deviation SD values were either reported in the manuscript or provided by the authors on request. Study information Barwood et al. Study information Patrick and Hrycaiko [ 39 ] Post et al. Study information Bath et al. Study information MacMahon et al. Participants R R? Practical Psychological Interventions Twenty-five studies measured the effect of a psychological manipulation that was judged to be ethical, feasible and accessible to a practitioner, coach or athlete.

Association and Dissociation Participants were encouraged to use an associative or dissociative cognitive strategy in five studies one strong quality, two moderate and two weak , and the findings were mixed. Hypnosis Hypnosis interventions improved endurance performance in two studies one moderate quality and one weak. Imagery One of two studies found that imagery improved endurance performance both moderate quality. Psychological Skills Training Packages PST improved endurance performance in five studies two moderate quality and three weak. Relaxation and Biofeedback A 6-week training programme using relaxation and biofeedback improved the running economy of sub-elite long-distance runners [ 63 ].

Self-Talk Four of five studies supported self-talk interventions three moderate quality and two weak. External Motivators Ten studies eight moderate quality and two weak examined the effects of head-to-head competition, verbal encouragement, financial incentives or co-participation on endurance performance. Mental Fatigue Three studies one strong quality and two moderate showed that mental fatigue undermines endurance performance. Priming Three studies examined the effects of priming interventions on endurance performance all moderate quality.

Efficacy Strength Youth swimmers with high efficacy strength performed better in simulated competition than those with low efficacy strength [ 82 ]. Discussion A systematic literature review was conducted to identify psychological determinants of endurance performance. Practical Psychological Interventions Overview This review found substantial support for using practical psychological interventions to improve endurance performance. Psychological Mediating Variables Although many practical psychological interventions improved endurance performance, little is known about the psychological mechanisms underlying these improvements.

Placebo Control Conditions Increased expectations of performance improvement might account for the effects of some psychological interventions. Limitations of Practical Psychological Intervention Studies Additional limitations were consistently identified across the included studies investigating the effects of practical psychological interventions on endurance performance. Theoretical Implications Only three practical psychological interventions [ 49 , 53 , 55 ] tested or were clearly informed by a specified psychological theory.

Implications and Recommendations for Practice PST interventions involving imagery, self-talk and goal setting offer a promising tool for improving the performance of endurance athletes. Implications and Recommendations for Research Theoretically driven studies could systematically examine the mechanisms through which psychological interventions affect endurance performance, and they could therefore encourage development and refinement of performance enhancement interventions that have consistent and strong effects in endurance events.

Limitations of the Systematic Review This literature review synthesized studies on the psychological determinants of endurance performance. Conclusion This systematic literature review aimed to identify psychological determinants of endurance performance. Acknowledgments The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data. References 1. Quarter of a billion pounds raised for charity by London Marathon runners in the last five years [online]. Accessed 09 Dec The event [online].

Dosil J. The psychology of athletics. In: Dosil J, editor. Chichester: Wiley; Psychological aspects of rowing. In: Dosil J, et al.

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